عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This paper seeks to address this issue, why European countries that after World War II due to the need for labor to rebuild itself, provided a suitable platform to attract a large number of workers from African and Asian countries, especially from Muslim communities and adopted multicultural policies to cope with the cultural differences of migrants, now have announced the failure of this policy. The paper suggests that factors such highlighted the social and cultural aspects of social and political life of Muslim immigrants in European countries, expanding the scope of the Islamic awakening in the communities of origin of the immigrants, a new wave of commitment of Muslim immigrants to the value of their indigenous communities, the events of 11 September, some terrorist events in Europe and the expansion of Islamophobia in Western societies have changed multicultural policies in European countries. As a result of that, European leaders finally officially announced the failure of multicultural policy. The failure of multiculturalism as a policy resulted to alternatives policies such as integration and assimilation, promoting of Euro-Islam, exclusion and isolation of muslims, confronting with new immigration muslims,and deportation of Muslims from European countries which led to more limitations for social life of Muslims living in these countries.