عوامل موثر بر وقوع ناآرامی ها در کشور عراق (مطالعه موردی ابعاد سیاسی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی اعتراضات سال 2019)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی- دانشگاه یاسوج

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه اردکان، یزد

10.30479/psiw.2020.11869.2652

چکیده

هدف: اعتراضات سیاسی یکی از انواع کنش­های سیاسیمحسوب می­شود. عراق پس از صدام بارها شاهد چنین اعتراضاتی بوده است.آخرین مورد از این اعتراضات در پاییز 1398 رخ داد. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی علت ناآرامی­های سیاسی در عراق و چرایی تبدیل اعتراضات اخیر به شکل ضد نظام است.
روش: برای انجام پژوهش حاضر از نظریه محرومیت ­نسبی تِد رابرت گر و روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی استفاده شده است.
یافته­ها: طبق یافته­های پژوهش، میزان درآمد نفتی و رشد اقتصادی عراق طی سال­های گذشته انتظارات ارزشی را در میان جوانان، که 59 درصد جمعیت را تشکیل می­دهند، بالا برده و به تعارض با توقعات ارزشی در آنها منجر شده است. لذا با مشاهده میزان فقر، فساد و بیکاری و مقایسه کشور خود با دیگر دولت­های منطقه دچار نوعی احساس محرومیت­ نسبی شده­اند. بنابراین کنش­های سیاسی آنها شکل خشونت­آمیز و اعتراضی به خود گرفته است.
نتیجه­گیری: با توجه به اینکه رفع احساس محرومیت ­نسبی در شهروندان نیازمند اقدامات ساختاری و جدی است و انجام این کار در کوتاه‌مدت عملاً امکان‌پذیر نیست، لذا می­توان گفت تا زمانی که اصلاحات اقتصادی لازم در عراق انجام نپذیرد و کنش­های سیاسی شهروندان عراقی در قالب جنبش­های مدنی و احزاب دنبال نگردد وقوع اعتراضات خشونت­بار همانند پاییز 1398 در شهرهای عراق امری طبیعی و قابل تصور خواهد بود.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effective Factors on Unrest in Iraq: A Case Study of the Political, Economic and Social Dimensions of the 2019 Protests

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali bagheri 1
  • mohsen shafiee seifabadi 2
1 assistant professor- yasouj university
2 member of political science department;, Ardakan University, Yaz
چکیده [English]

Objective: Political protests are one of the types of political action.Iraq has witnessed such protests many times after Saddam Hussein. The last of these protests occurred in the fall of 2019. The aim of this study is to identify the cause of political unrest in Iraq and to find an answer to the question of why the recent protests have become anti-regime?
Method: The method used in this study is descriptive-analytical and uses Ted Robert Gurr's relative deprivation theory as a theoretical framework.
Results: According to research findings, Iraq's oil revenue and economic growth over the past years has raised value expectations among young people, who make up 59% of the population, and maketo feel contradiction with their value expectations. Thus, they have experienced a sense of relative deprivation by observing poverty, corruption and unemployment and comparing their country with other regional governments.Therefore, their political actions havetaken the form of violence and protest.
Conclusion: Given that the elimination of the feeling of relative deprivation in citizens requires structural and serious measures, and it is practically impossible to do so in the short term, so; it can be said as long as the necessary economic reforms are not carried out in Iraq and Iraqi citizens don't pursue their political activities in the form of parties and civil movements, the occurrence of violent protests, as in the fall of 2019 in Iraqi cities, will be natural and imaginable.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Political Unrest
  • Iraq
  • Relative Deprivation
  • Economy
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment
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