بررسی انگیزه ها و اهداف رهبران و مبارزان ساده در داعش تفاوت یا شباهت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)

10.30479/psiw.2020.9104.2311

چکیده

هدف: ظهور دولت اسلامی عراق و سوریه (داعش) موضوعی بود که کسی پیش از حمله آمریکا به عراق در 2003 نمی توانست  آنرا پیش بینی کند. ترکیبی از نیروی های نظامی ماهر سابق عراق ، مذهبیون افراطی و شبه نظامیان داخلی و خارجی یک شبه دولت تروریستی را ایجاد کردند.
الحاق تعداد زیاد و سریع عناصر جنگجوی داخلی و خارجی به داعش ، ما را به سوالی در مورد اهداف و انگیزه های عمومی و شخصی اعضاء سوق می دهد. شناخت این انگیزه ها با یک مطالعه عمیق ، هدف اصلی این مقاله است. انگیزه های رهبران  داعش چیست و چه مواردی انگیزه مبارزان ساده را شکل می دهد؟ آیا در کنار اهداف مذهبی ، انگیزه های موثر دیگری وجود دارد؟ آیا برخی عوامل اجتماعی ، روانی یا اقتصادی به عنوان انگیزه های فردی قابل ردیابی هستند؟
پاسخ به چنین سؤالاتی به ما کمک می کند تا به طور نسبی به  درجه و عمق انسجام سیاسی و همبستگی اجتماعی در داعش پی ببریم.
روش ها: با تکیه بر روش توصیفی تحلیلی، این تحقیق با رویکرد رفتارگرایانه  انجام یافته است. اظهارات رسمی ، اعلامیه ها و همچنین گفتمان ها ، اعترافات و مصاحبه ها به عنوان پایه اصلی تحلیل در نظر گرفته شده و سعی شده داده ها از منابع  دسته اول و دوم رد یابی شود.
نتیجه گیری: طبق پیش بینی اولیه ما که از تئوری شناختی الهام گرفته است ، در کنار عوامل روانشناختی ، عوامل مختلفی  مانند توجیهات ذهنی ،انگیزه های  اعضاء داعش  اعم از رهبران و سطوح  پایین را شکل می دهد. در مورد مطالعه ما ، بین درک و برداشت رهبران و پیروان ، شباهت های زیادی وجود داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study on Motivations and Objectives of Leaders and Simple Fighters in ISIS, Difference or Similarity

نویسنده [English]

  • Majid Bozorgmehri
Associate Professor. Imam Khomeini International University. Qazvin. Iran,
چکیده [English]

Objective: The emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) was something no one could have predicted prior to the 2003 US Invasion of Iraq. A combination of skilled former Iraqi military personnel, eschatologically savvy Islamic clerics, and an army of domestic and foreign fighters have created the ultimate terrorist pseudo-state.
 The huge number of domestic and foreign fighters joined to ISIS, leads us to the question about the general and personal objectives and motivations of warriors. Recognizing these motivations through a deep study is the main perspective of this article. What are the leaders’ motivations and what do shape those of the simple fighters? Are there any effective motivations beside of religious objectives? So could some social, psychological or economic factors be traced as the individual motivations?
Answering to such questions helps us to find relatively the degree and the depth of political cohesion and social solidarity inside of ISIS.
Methods: Relying on the explanatory analysis, our methodology is structured with a behaviorist approach.  The official statements, declarations and testimonies as well as the discourses, confessions and interviews are considered as the main base of analysis and we try to chase our data from the first and secondary sources.
Results& Conclusions: According to our early prediction which was inspired from cognitive theory, various factors alongside the psychological characters shape the mental justifications and the heart motivations of recruits.  And here in our case of study, there are a strong similarity between the understanding and conceptions of leaders and followers.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ISIS
  • Islamic world
  • Motivations
  • Warriors
  • Syria
  • Iraq
 

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